Influential civil rights pioneers and psychologists. Kenneth Clark was the first black man to earn a doctorate in psychology from Columbia University, the first to become a tenured instructor in the City College system of New York, and the first black man elected to the New York State Board of Regents. Mamie Clark was the first black woman to earn a doctorate in clinical psychology from Columbia. They founded the Northside Center for Child Development, which helped thousands of emotionally troubled Harlem children. The couple's research on black children's perceptions of themselves was instrumental in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision that found segregation in public schools unconstitutional.